Pastuszak et al.
Urologic Health.
Only 36.4% of men had knowledge of a
vasectomy as a permanent form of birth control, and only
22.0% would consider having one (Table 2). Forty per-
cent of those saying they would not consider having a
vasectomy cited not wanting a permanent form of birth
control as the reason. Among those with testicular cancer
knowledge, 51.8% received information through per-
sonal reading and 23.5% from professional experience.
Only 67.7% of young men reported knowing that men
can get testicular cancer. Additionally, 39.0% reported
not performing testicular self-examination (TSE), with an
additional 21.7% performing examinations occasionally,
but not at regular intervals.
Interpersonal Correlates
Partner Communication.
Only 57% of men discussed birth
control with their partners prior to having sex (Table 5).
Peer Norms.
The majority of peers (83.5%) encourage par-
ticipants to use condoms or other forms of birth control,
while only a minority of peers (9.1%) discourage partici-
pants from using condoms or other forms of birth control.
Eighteen percent of participants reported hav-
ing been physically hurt by their partner at some point
during their relationship.
Community Correlates
Exposure to Community Violence.
The majority of men
(71.2%) reported having been in a fight (Table 6). Afri-
can Americans were more likely than Hispanics to have
been in a fight (78.7% vs. 57.3%, respectively,
= 0.00,
RR = 2.75, CI [1.54, 4.88]) and physically hurt by their
partner (78.9% vs. 89.3%, respectively,
= 0.04, RR =
2.23, CI [1.02, 4.88]; Table 3). A significant proportion
of men (31.1%) reported having carried a weapon, and
13.0% indicated having been shot or stabbed.
Access to Health Care.
When grouped by age, 92.7% of
18- to 20-year-olds had access to birth control, signifi-
cantly higher than the 81.3% of 21- to-25-year-olds who
had access to birth control (
= 0.01). Most men (87.5%)
had access to some form of birth control, with 33.0%
getting it from a clinic and 43.6% from a pharmacy
(Table 6). African Americans were more likely to report
using a clinic to get their birth control when compared
with Hispanics (71.1% vs. 57.6%, respectively,
= 0.23,
RR = 0.32, CI [0.32, 0.95]). When asked about health
care access, only 15.9% of young men reported having
difficulty accessing health care, with the most common
factor preventing access having been payment for health
services (70.0%), followed by lack of transportation
The purpose of this study was to examine the overall
health needs among a group of underserved minority
males attending family planning health services. The
results suggest that young males have significant gaps in
SRH-related knowledge, specifically pertaining to the
likelihood of pregnancy in female partners and condom
effectiveness. Results also suggest that young males do
not discuss contraception with their sexual partners prior
to sexual activity. This finding is supported by prior stud-
ies (Marcell & Ellen, 2012) and may be related to male
perceptions that women are responsible for providing
contraception, and to the influence of masculinity in male
Table 5.
Interpersonal Correlates (
= 258).
Partner Communication
Did you discuss use of birth control with your
partner prior to having sex?
143 (57.0)
Peer Norms
Do your friends ENCOURAGE you to use
condoms or other forms of birth control?
212 (83.5)
Do your friends DISCOURAGE you from using
condoms or other forms of birth control?
23 (9.1)
Has your partner ever hit you, slapped, or
physically hurt you on purpose?
46 (18.1)
Table 6.
Community Correlates (
= 258).
Exposure to Community Violence
Have you ever been in an accident or
suffered some form of trauma or injury?
53 (21.0)
Have you ever been in a physical fight one or
more times?
178 (71.2)
Have you ever carried a weapon at least one
78 (31.1)
Have you ever been shot or stabbed?
33 (13.0)
Access to Health Care
In the past year, did you ever need to go to
the doctor or hospital but had difficulty? If
so, why so difficult? (Mark all that apply)
40 (15.9)
28 (10.6)
Identification issues
9 (3.4)
11 (4.2)
Hours of the clinic/hospital
7 (2.7)
I have not had to go to the doctor/hospital
in the past year
111 (42.0)
1 (0.4)
Do you have access to condoms or other
forms of birth control?
223 (87.5)
at UCSF LIBRARY & CKM on February 12, 2016
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