American Journal of Men’s Health
(Ashton, Hutchesson, Rol lo, Morgan, & Collins, 2014).
Young minority males experience higher rates of homi-
cide, coronary heart disease, obesity, motor vehicle acci-
dents, and asthma in comparison with White and female
counterparts (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
[CDC], 2011b). Minority men also suffer from adverse
SRH outcomes (Kalmuss & Tatum, 2007). They are also
more likely than other subgroups to engage in risky sexual
behavior such as early initiation of sex and sex with mul-
tiple partners, increasing their risk of genitourinary dis-
ease (Kalmuss, Armstrong, Franks, Hecker, & Gonzalez,
2008; Ohalete, 2007; Ott, 2010). From 2010 to 2011,
young males 20 to 24 years old experienced higher rates
of chlamydia and gonorrhea infections than their female
counterparts (CDC, 2011a). Urologic issues in young
males that are not properly treated can increased SRH
needs over time (CDC, 2014a, 2014b). STIs can progress
to permanent urologic conditions affecting fertility and
general health. Testicular cancer diagnosis is often delayed
in uninsured, underserved men. Evaluating men for infer-
tility or subfertility may help preemptively identify
pathologies that these men may be at risk for later in life
(Eisenberg, Li, Brooks, Cullen, & Baker, 2015; Lerro,
Robbins, Fedewa, & Ward, 2013).
A great number of adolescents are affected by vio-
lence, specifically intimate partner violence (IPV) and
mental health issues, and many lack sexual health knowl-
edge (Fonagy et al., 2015; Gressard, Swahn, & Tharp,
2015; Lassi, Salam, Das, Wazny, & Bhutta, 2015). About
3% to 8% of all adolescents suffer from depression, with
the first major depressive episode occurring between 15
and 24 years of age (Zuckerbrodt, Cheung, Jensen, Stein,
& Laraque, 2007). A national survey of college-aged per-
sons identified that 8.9% of males reported depressive
symptoms within the 12 months prior to the survey
(American College Health Association, 2015). One study
reported that 32% of young adults reported victimization
and 24% perpetration of IPV (Halpern, Spriggs, Martin,
& Kupper, 2009). Furthermore, 59.1% of males experi-
enced IPV in some relationships and 8.4% experienced
IPV in all relationships (Johnson, Manning, Giordano, &
Longmore, 2015). These factors play a role in influencing
behavior and overall health outcomes (Fonagy et al.,
2015). However, the associations are not well studied or
Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a sub-
population with increased risk for sexual health adversi-
ties. Although they are approximately 4% of the
population, in 2010, they accounted for 78% of new HIV
infections among males (CDC, 2012a). Minority MSM
are especially at risk for HIV infection (CDC, 2012b).
Factors including stigmatization, sexual violence, mental
illness, social marginalization, and gender role strain con-
tribute to increased HIV rates among MSM (Fields et al.,
2015; Finneran & Stephenson, 2013; Lloyd & Operario,
Public health studies are not generally focused on men’s
health (Chege, 2005; Kalmuss et al., 2008; Kalmuss &
Tatum, 2007; Saewyc, 2012). Studies focusing on increas-
ing youths’ knowledge and health care access have cited
the need for more research to better determine evidence-
based solutions, barriers, and facilitators for improving
access to and quality of youth-friendly reproductive health
services (Morris & Rushwan, 2015; Oman, Merritt, Fluhr,
& Williams, 2015; Romero, Middleton, Mueller, Avellino,
& Hallum-Montes, 2015). Clinician, government, and
parental concerns regarding SRH needs are typically
biased toward women, despite the association between
male health and the health of their partner(s), families, and
community members.
Due to the unbalanced focus and lack of knowledge of
men’s health care needs, there is a need to close the
knowledge gap in order to guide politicians and medical
professions in implementing evidence-based practices to
alleviate young males’ SRH issues (Morris & Rushwan,
2015). The present study was undertaken to examine the
comprehensive health needs of underserved minority
young males seeking health care services in a large met-
ropolitan area, a population not well studied. Closing the
knowledge gaps surrounding young males’ overall health
can help clinics focus on health care services young
minority males need.
The study was conducted in free-to-low cost comprehen-
sive family planning and reproductive health clinics in a
large metropolitan inner city in the Southwestern United
States. The system included 10 clinic locations serving
approximately 1,500 young males per year. Study sur-
veys were disseminated among male clinic patients 18
years and older who accessed care from July 2012 to
August 2014. Surveys were only written in English and
only patients who were proficient in English were asked
to participate. The study’s convenience sample consisted
of 258 males 18 to 25 years old who sought services in
family planning clinics or participated in community
events organized by the clinics. Community samples are
highly useful in exploring understudied topics with niche
populations, such as SRH and overall health needs among
young minority males. Based on clinic data, approxi-
mately 22% of male clinic patients did not have health
insurance. Paper copies of the survey were also handed
out to participants during the clinics’ semiannual basket-
ball health fair tournaments. Tournament participants
completed the survey upon entering the facility, limiting
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