American Journal of Men’s Health
© The Author(s) 2016
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/1557988316629627
Disparities in health care access and outcomes continue to
affect individuals in the United States. Despite substantial
progress since the 1980s, there continue to be prominent
differences in health status based on gender (Frieden,
2011). Great strides have been made in addressing health
outcomes for women. However, men remain at increased
risk for numerous negative health-related outcomes,
including motor vehicle accidents, suicide, coronary heart
disease, preventable hospitalization, hypertension and its
sequelae, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs;
Frieden, 2011).
Racial minorities, specifically Hispanics and African
Americans, are affected by health disparities including
lack of health insurance and access to care when com-
pared with Whites (Frieden, 2011; Russell, 2010). For
example, racial minorities experience higher rates of can-
cer, heart disease, and stroke than Whites (Russell, 2010).
Hispanic and African Americans, compared with Whites,
also have higher rates of adverse sexual and reproductive
health (SRH) outcomes—outcomes related to the state of
an individual’s reproductive system. Disparities in SRH
outcomes include a higher percentage of Hispanic and
African Americans contracting STIs and human immuno-
deficiency virus (HIV) than Whites (Conklin, 2012;
Frieden, 2011). Adolescent pregnancy rates for Hispanics
and African Americans are three and two and a half times
those of Whites, respectively (Frieden, 2011). African
American youth, both males and females, report first sex-
ual intercourse at earlier ages than other racial groups (;
Conklin, 2012). Early sexual intercourse and a relatively
large number of sexual partners increase youths’ risk for
STIs including HIV (Davies et al., 2014).
While minorities in general are affected by poor health
outcomes, young minority males are especially vulnerable
10. 1 7/1 579 831 629627American Journal of Men’s Health
Pastuszak et al.
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
Corresponding Author:
Alexander W. Pastuszak, Division of Male Reproductive Medicine
and Surgery, Scott Department of Urology, Center for Reproductive
Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 6624 Fannin Street, Suite 1700,
Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Comprehensive Assessment of
Health Needs of Young Minority Males
Attending a Family Planning Clinic
Alexander W. Pastuszak, MD, PhD
, Evan P. Wenker, MD
Peggy B. Smith, PhD
, Allyssa Abacan, MPH
, Dolores J. Lamb, PhD
Larry I. Lipshultz, MD
, and Ruth Buzi, PhD
The objective of this study was to assess the overall health, including sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge
and needs, sexual behaviors, and testicular health practices among young minority males. Anonymous questionnaires
were administered to 18- to 25-year-old males receiving services at health clinics in a large southwestern U.S. city.
The survey was completed by 258 males with a mean age of 20.8 years. Most young males (67.1%) identified as
African American, and 32.9% as Hispanic. Results suggest study participants lack SRH knowledge related to pregnancy
and condom effectiveness, and engage in risky sexual behavior including not using birth control at their last sexual
encounter. Although 21.6% of participants had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past year, approximately
80% perceived their STI/HIV risk as very low or low. Respondents had low engagement and lack of knowledge of
testicular health practices. The majority of respondents (71.1%) reported having been in a physical fight one or more
times and 18.1% reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These data support a need for comprehensive
health services for minority young males.
sexual health, reproductive health, male adolescent, genitourinary health
at UCSF LIBRARY & CKM on February 12, 2016
Downloaded from